Lisinopril comes from a class of drugs known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Lisinopril is used for kidneys, hypertension, heart attacks, and heart failure. It is used as a prescription anti-hypertensive drug in both adults and six years and above older children to lower recurrently elevated blood pressure levels.
Lisinopril is a synthetic peptide derivative that more often comes under the brands of Prinivil, Zestoretic, Qbrelis, and Zestril. It is generally used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide to ensure smooth blood flow by reducing the production of chemicals that contribute to the stiffening of blood vessels (Lancaster, S.G. and Todd, P.A).
How Is Blood Pressure Medication Causing Effects On Pregnancy?
High blood pressure levels increase the risk of many other health disorders like stroke, blood clotting, seizures in mothers, liver problems, kidney problems, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, and premature birth in pregnant women.
Using inappropriate anti-hypertensive medications without a professional's prescription enhances the risk of complications before, after, and during gestation. Moreover, blood pressure-lowering medicines can lead to high-risk health consequences by causing a reduction in blood supply to the placenta, increased risk for your baby, and many more side effects like:
- Dry cough
- Low blood pressure
- Runny nose
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Liver problems
- Kidney problems (Scantlebury, D.C., Schwartz, G.L., Acquah, L.A., White, W.M., Moser, M. and Garovic, V.D., 2013).
Does Lisinopril Affect In Pregnancy?
Blood pressure-lowering medicines are safe during pregnancy if you take the proper treatment. Blood pressure medicines from classes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, renin inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers, are suggested to be avoided during pregnancy. It is recommended to terminate the use of Lisinopril after detecting pregnancy.
Lisinopril should not be used during pregnancy, and primarily, its use in the second and third trimesters can be even more hazardous, so professionals contraindicate it. Consequently, it is disallowed due to high-risk factors during the first trimester and even death of the neonate, particularly during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Some commonly reported side effects of Lisinopril in pregnant women are as follows:
- fetal morbidity
- neonatal morbidity
- Reduced renal functions in fetus
- Skeletal malformations
- Hepatic disturbances
- lung hypoplasia
- Hemolytic anemia
- Fetal or neonatal death (Steffensen, F.H., Nielsen, G.L., Sørensen, H.T., Olesen, C. and Olsen, J., 1998).
What If You Had Hypertension During Pregnancy? Which Medication Can You Prefer?
If you are a pregnant woman with a hypertension history and already using the medicine, you should immediately consult a high blood pressure and pregnancy specialist. It is necessary as it is not risk-free to continue in pregnancy with the already prescribed medicines because it can be dangerous for the health and growth of the fetus.
To tackle the intolerable effects of pre-existing hypertension during pregnancy, medication like methyldopa, beta blockers excluding atenolol, labetalol, a diuretic, and slow-release nifedipine are the most commonly prescribed first-line agents. Moreover, in addition to the previously mentioned drugs, Hydralazine and nifedipine are drugs of choice due to their tested effectiveness and Safety. In the case of severe hypertension, preeclampsia is prescribed for treatment
Does Lisinopril Also Affect Breastfeeding?
Much more research must be done regarding the amount of anti-hypertensive drugs excreted in milk while breastfeeding. If you are taking Lisinopril while breastfeeding, you should consult with your doctor to decide whether to continue with the drug or not. There is no evidence regarding the amount of Lisinopril secreted in breast milk.
However, small amounts of the medicine are predicted to be present and can cause a slight risk of lowering the baby's blood pressure. If you take Lisinopril and observe some abnormal signs, like your baby feeling unusually sleepy, not feeding correctly, and looking paler than usual, you should immediately consult your doctor. Lisinopril is usually discouraged while breastfeeding due to its secretion in breast milk (Tosounidou, S. and Gordon, C., 2020).
Interaction Of Lisinopril With Other Medicines
Lisinopril can react with other medicines, resulting in adverse health consequences. Given below are some of these drugs:
- Bactrim: can result in hyperkalemia due to elevated blood potassium levels
- Blood pressure medications: can result in hypotension
- Neprilysin inhibitors: multiply the risk of getting angioedema
- Insulin: can result in lowering of blood pressure to a dangerous level
- Diuretics (water pills): can result in significant lowering of blood pressure
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): can be harmful to kidneys and restrict the function of Lisinopril.
Every medicine has some benefits and side effects simultaneously, but you must ponder both to make the right choice. For more than three decades, cardiologists, physicians, healthcare clinicians, and internists have recommended Lisinopril due to its Safety.
However, female patients using Lisinopril must be conscious of its possible side effects during pregnancy and breastfeeding. To minimize the risk effects of Lisinopril, medical professionals must optimize its remedial and Safety consequences.